Sunday, 27 January 2013

On polygamy in Islam and Khairat Al-Shater secret marriage


 Recomended readings
الإسلام وقضايا المرأة 2 / 12
الإسلام وقضايا المرأة 3 / 12
الإسلام وقضايا المرأة 4 / 12
الإسلام وقضايا المرأة 5 / 12
الإسلام وقضايا المرأة 6 / 12
الإسلام وقضايا المرأة 7 / 12
الإسلام وقضايا المرأة 8 / 12
الإسلام وقضايا المرأة 9 / 12
الإسلام وقضايا المرأة 10 / 12
الإسلام وقضايا المرأة 11 / 12
الإسلام وقضايا المرأة 12 / 12

I have always wanted to write about the subject of polygamy in Islam to remove confusion and to respond to the enemies of Islam,but I did not do for lack of time, and difficulty in expressing myself in English, especially in delicate issues. But the secret marriage of Khairat El-Shater, the deputy Egypts Brotherhood leader prompted me to write.

خيرت الشاطر لا يفضل تعدد الزوجات ولا النقاب وزوّج بناته وهو في السجن

The marrage of Khairat is not the first, and so it's based on the wrong understanding of the third verses in Surat Al-nisaa, taken out of text and out of the historical circumstances in which it was revealed.
The Muslim scholars and Ulama rarely agreed on any thing more than their agreemet on polygamy.
I posted several Videos for Sheik Abu Arafa on the so-called Arab spring and the so called Syrian revolution, and was keen to know his how he understands the verses 3 and 129 of surat Al-nissa,
{ وإن خفتم ألا تقسطوا في اليتامى فانكحوا ما طاب لكم من النساء مثنى وثلاث ورباع فإن خفتم ألا تعدلوا فواحدة }

3 . If ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one, or (a captive) that your right hands possess, that will be more suitable, to prevent you from doing injustice. - 3 -
{ ولن تستطيعوا أن تعدلوا بين النساء ولو حرصتم فلا تميلوا كل الميل فتذروها كالمعلقة وان تصلحوا وتتقوا }

129 . Ye are never able to be fair and just as between women, even if it is your ardent desire: But turn not away (from a woman) altogether, so as to leave her (as it were) hanging (in the air).If ye come to a friendly understanding, and practise self- restraint, Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. Abu Arafa disapointed me, one hand he blamed those who claim that polygamy is not allowed in Islam because because just between women can't be reached, ignoring the end of the verses 129, asking men to do their best, confirming that polygamy is allowed in Islam. But, our respected scholar did the same, he ignored the begining of verses 3 about just for orphans. Consequently, for abu Arafa, like his fellow male schoors, is allowed in Islam without conditions, without controls other than trying to be fair with women.
"Dr Zakir Naik, the president of Islamic Research Foundation, Mumbai....clarifies Islamic viewpoints and clears misconceptions about Islam, using the Qur’an, authentic conjunction with reason, logic and scientific facts. " wrote:

"Qur'an permits limited polygyny As I mentioned earlier, Qur'an is the only religious book on the face of the earth that says 'marry only one'. The context of this phrase is the following verse from Surah Nisa of the Glorious Qur'an: 'Marry woman of your choice in twos' threes' or fours' but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly, (with them), then only one' [Al-Qur'an 4:3] "
Like Abu Arafa he omitted the begining of the verses to avoid the "IF, THEN" reason and logic, and the sequence of the the first three verses of Al-nisaa.

Let us read the first three verses in Surat Al nisaa,
  1. يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالاً كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاء وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالأَرْحَامَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا
  2. وَآتُواْ الْيَتَامَى أَمْوَالَهُمْ وَلاَ تَتَبَدَّلُواْ الْخَبِيثَ بِالطَّيِّبِ وَلاَ تَأْكُلُواْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ إِلَى أَمْوَالِكُمْ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حُوبًا كَبِيرًا
  3. وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلاَّ تُقْسِطُواْ فِي الْيَتَامَى فَانكِحُواْ مَا طَابَ لَكُم مِّنَ النِّسَاء مَثْنَى وَثُلاثَ وَرُبَاعَ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلاَّ تَعْدِلُواْ فَوَاحِدَةً أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ذَلِكَ أَدْنَى أَلاَّ تَعُولُواْ

1 . O mankind! reverence your Guardian-Lord, who created you from a single person, created, of like nature, His mate, and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women;- reverence Allah, through whom ye demand your mutual (rights), and (reverence) the wombs (That bore you): for Allah ever watches over you.
2 . To orphans restore their property (When they reach their age), nor substitute (your) worthless things for (their) good ones; and devour not their substance (by mixing it up) with your own.For this is indeed a great sin.
3 . If ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them, With Orphans), then only one, or (a captive) that your right hands possess, that will be more suitable, to prevent you from doing injustice.
The first is about creation of humanity from a single person, the second is about orphans and their properties, and the third is about Orphans and Polygamy.

Polygamy is allowed upto four with the condition of dealing justly with the Orphans. Therefore polygyny should not a rule but an exception, but even schoolars who say: polygyny is not a rule but an exception, failed to explain the relation between Polygamy and the Orphans subject to justice and unjustice.

Based on Hadeeth told by Aysha, the Muslim scholars, Ulams and commentators -Interpreter-Interpreters (all of the are males) claimed that the orphans in verses 3 verses 127 revealed to clarify verses 3 are, the second, the third and the forth wives, contradicting verses 2 confirming that orphans and children without father or mother until they reach their age ( Puberty)

According to the hadeeth, the verses is instruct Gardians who wants to marry an orphan for her money and beauty without giving her a fair premium and in her dowry to marry other women up to four.

وأخرج البخاري عن عروة بن الزبير- رضي الله عنه- أنه سأل خالته أم المؤمنين السيدة عائشة- رضي الله عنها وأرضاها- عن قوله- تعالى- :(وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلاَّ تُقْسِطُوا فِي اليَتَامَى...) فقالت : " يا ابن أختي ! هذه اليتيمة تكون في حجر وليها, تشركه في ماله, ويعجبه مالها وجمالها, فيريد وليها أن يتزوجها بغير أن يقسط في صداقها, فيعطيها مثل ما يعطيها غيره, فنهوا أن ينكحوهن إلا أن يقسطوا إليهن, ويبلغوا بهن أعلى سنتهن في الصداق, وأمروا أن ينكحوا من النساء سواهن"
Aysha added that when people asked the Prophet PUH to explain the verses, another vesese 127 was revealed to be read with verses 3. More Here and Here and Here

وَيَسْتَفْتُونَكَ فِي النِّسَاء قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِيهِنَّ وَمَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ فِي يَتَامَى النِّسَاء الَّلاتِي لاَ تُؤْتُونَهُنَّ مَا كُتِبَ لَهُنَّ وَتَرْغَبُونَ أَن تَنكِحُوهُنَّ وَالْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الْوِلْدَانِ وَأَن تَقُومُواْ لِلْيَتَامَى بِالْقِسْطِ وَمَا تَفْعَلُواْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِهِ عَلِيمًا
127 . They ask thy instruction concerning the women say: Allah doth instruct you about them: And (remember) what hath been rehearsed unto you in the Book, concerning the orphans of women to whom ye give not the portions prescribed, and yet whom ye desire to marry, as also concerning the children who are weak and oppressed: that ye stand firm for justice to orphans.There is not a good deed which ye do, but Allah is well-acquainted therewith.
قال عروة: قالت خالتي أم المؤمنين السيدة عائشة : " وإن الناس استفتوا رسول الله- صلى الله عليه وسلم- بعد نزول هذه الآية , فأنزل الله- تعالى-: (وَيَسْتَفْتُونَكَ فِي النِّسَاءِ قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِيهِنَّ وَمَا يُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الكِتَابِ فِي يَتَامَى النِّسَاءِ اللاَّتِي لاَ تُؤْتُونَهُنَّ مَا كُتِبَ لَهُنَّ وَتَرْغَبُونَ أَن تَنكِحُوهُنَّ...) قالت أم المؤمنين السيدة عائشة: " وقول الله في هذه الآية الأخرى :(... وَتَرْغَبُونَ أَن تَنكِحُوهُنَّ...*) رغبة أحدكم عن يتيمته إذا كانت قليلة المال والجمال. فنهوا أن ينكحوا من رغبوا في مالها وجمالها من النساء إلا بالقسط من أجل رغبتهم عنهن إذا كن قليلات المال والجمال ".
The question in Verses 127 is about WOMEN you want to marry without dowry (Being widows) and about the orphans (SONS) of the widows, not about orphaned "women" as scholars claimed, because a girl who reached Puberty is not an orphan. So, both verses 3 and 127 are dealing with widows and their orphans. Moreover, the Nisaa Sorat (Chapter) was revealed in Madina to deal with widows issues, that arises after the defeat of Muslims in Uhod battle where tens of muslims were martyred leaving widows and orphans.

This understanding is confirmed by the fact that all the wifes Prophet Mohammad married after Khadeeja were widows, except Aysha 
What if a woman does not accept polygamy

"First of all, marriage in one of its phases is a legal contract between the wife and the husband. Both partners have the right to add any condition that they think it will help them to protect their future life. So, if a woman thinks polygamy is against her interest, then she has the full right to announce her objection during the marriage contract as a condition and a right for a valid contract or else it will be nullified. Based on that, the husband has to commit to that condition or he would have no right to keep her as a wife if she decides to get divorced and was approved by the Islamic court, especially if divorcing the husband is controlled by the wife."

During my life time I attended so many marriages, but never saw a Shiek asking the the man or the girl about any special condition he or she wants to add to the marriage contract.
"Allow me to shed some light on one issue- polygamy- which continues to penetrate the lives and honor of Muslim women. In pre-Islamic Arabia, polygamy was limitless. The Quran is believed to have restricted this practice to four wives, while allowing a woman not more than one husband at a time. (The reason behind the restriction for women was to keep the patriarchal family intact and avoid confusion over lineage). It is assumed that following a military bat-tle between Muslims and the ruling tribe of Mecca, where sixty five women became widows- six years after Khadijah’s death- the verse recommending taking up to four wives was revealed."

Surah: 4 verse: 3 states:
«And if you fear that you will not deal fairly by the orphans, marry of the women, who seem good to you, two or three or four; and if you fear that you cannot do justice (to so many) then one (only) or (the captives) that your right hands possess. Thus it is more likely that you will not do injustice» Another verse addressing men’s treatment of their wives and the challenge of dealing with them as equals is verse 129  
In Surah 4: “You will not be able to deal equally between (your) wives, however much you wish (to do so). But turn not altogether away from (one), leaving her as in suspense. If you do good and keep from evil, lo! Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.»

Muslim theorists and early scholars that have studied polygamy attributed to it several justifications. None of these, how-ever, are implicitly or explicitly mentioned in the Quran. The Prophet’s monogamous marriage to Khadijah bint Khwailed lasted for twenty-four years. It was only after her death that Prophet Mohammad (Peace be Upon Him) became polygamous, when he married up to eight or nine times, all of whom, with the exception of Aisha bint Abu-Bakr, were widows.

Traditional justifications for polygamy vary. One sets polygamy as a solution to economic and social needs, where a financially-capable man sponsors and cares for more than one needy woman. The problem here is the assumption that women can not be independent or self-reliant. Another justification is when a man’s first wife becomes barren or sick. Yet another certifies that since a man’s biological factors bring about unconstrained sexual de-sire, he should be given license to marry several wives.

All these arguments have no authentic basis in Islam and should therefore not be ratified.

In fact, the only verse allowing men to take up to four wives is the one cited above, which clearly indicates that polygamy was permitted to ensure the welfare of orphans.

Looking at what some progressive thinkers have to offer in this respect, Amina Wadud of Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) interprets the polygamy verse as being mainly concerned with justice. Wadud sees the origins of polygamy (IN ISLAM) linked to the treatment of orphans and believes that men were given the responsibility of managing the welfare of orphaned children- if they were incapable of doing so in a just manner they could take them as wives to avoid any «unjust mismanagement.» She argues that monogamy is preferred in light of both verses

(4:3)and (4:129), and adds that polygamy could be self-defeating if the husband-father is split between families. Similarly, Geraldine Brooks, the Australian author and journalist, argues that verse

(4:3)restricts the number of wives a man can take at one time, and that in any case polygamy is not favored in the Quran. She equates polygamy to slavery in that respect:: «As with polygamy, the wording of Koran permits, but discourages, slavery.»

[Its not true that Quran permits slavery. Slavery is mentioned in Quran as a fact on ground, paved the way for their freedom. Read Surat al-balad telling us the story of Adam and Adam's Sons (وَوَالِدٍ وَمَا وَلَدَ ) that God created Adam, the only free creature, free to extent that he disobeyed his Lord, telling us how the children Adam enslaved each other, urging us to storm the barrier (فَلا اقْتَحَمَ الْعَقَبَةَ ), asking; What's the barrier (وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا الْعَقَبَةُ ), answering: (فَكُّ رَقَبَةٍ ) Freeing a slave.]
John L. Esposito of Georgetown University believes that polygamy may be restricted or even banned since men are incapable of being fair and equal polygamists. Esposito sheds light on the historical and social contexts in which the verse on polygamy was revealed, with reference to the troubled circumstances that characterized the times, such as the widespread practice of limitless polygamy and the high number of widows resulting from the Battle of Uhud. Moreover, Esposito highlights a tendency in the Quran that favors a gradual approach to eliminate social ills over absolute prohibition (except in some cases such as female infanticide).
The limitation to four wives at one time could be perceived as the first step in a gradual process that would eventually lead to a ban on polygamy, similar to that on slavery.
Religious scholars must move beyond the literal substance of the Quran to reach out to its deeper- and greater- intent.
According to Mohammad Shahrour, an Islamic researcher from Syria, the two preconditions for polygamy are that the second wife must be a widow with orphaned children and that the man is marrying her to prevent unfair treatment of her orphans.

Shahrour defines “orphan” as a juvenile who has not reached puberty, has lost his or her father, and lives with his or her mother.

The verse says:

«And if you fear that you will not deal fairly by the Orphans, marry of the women, who seem good to you, two or three or four….»

Shahrour refutes the interpretation of this verse suggesting the man should marry the orphans: he holds that “women» can not be orphans as they have reached puberty.

While we should not expect unanimity among scholars of Islam on the issue of polygamy, or any other issue for that matter, exploring the flexibility of our heritage exposes the differences- sometimes irrec-oncilable- between a man and a woman’s vision of the rights and role of women in Islam.

The inclusion of women in reinterpreting Islamic texts can go a long way in bringing about much needed social and legal reform. Eliminating gender discrimination rooted in outdated interpretations of Islam will not only help lift us from our dependence on males in our personal affairs. It can help reduce the rampant poverty across the Muslim world. Education, training, and job opportunities for women, for example, not only enhance her financial situation but also her health and that of her family. Studies by international development organizations suggest that a small investment in poor areas produces better results when entrusted to a woman.

Islam has been used in many cases to introduce a fundamentalist ideology that is highly restrictive of women’s rights. The fact is that Islamic- particularly family- laws formulated by men centuries after the death of Prophet Mohammad (Peace be Upon Him) are still effective and strongly reflected in legislation today, placing women at a distinct disadvantage. Quranic interpretations are susceptible to social, historical, or gender biases.

Shari’a was formulated by men between the l0th and the l2th centuries, long after the Prophet’s death, and presented to Muslims as authentic teachings. Since then, some of the original values of Islam have been altogether abandoned or manipulated. Ijtihad can help us retrieve those values and enhance our lot as women. We have been given a mechanism to lift our-selves out of the degraded, dependent and intolerable status we find ourselves in. Let’s use it.

خيرت الشاطر نائب المرشد العام لجماعة الإخوان المسلمين في مصر يتزوج  عرفيا من فتاة سورية


خيرت الشاطر يتزوج عرفياً من سورية بمهر مليون دولارالمصدر

ادعت وثيقة تداولها عدد من مستخدمي الشبكات الاجتماعية، زواج المهندس خيرت الشاطر، نائب المرشد العام لجماعة الإخوان المسلمين، من فتاة سورية تبلغ من العمر 21 عامًا، تدعى ميساء عمر محمد خليل، يعود تاريخ وثيقة لشهر أغسطس الماضي، حسب صحيفة المرصد السعودية.
وورد بـ''الوثيقة المزعومة'' التي تبدو أنها ''عقد زواج عرفي'' اسما سليم حامد حامد حسن وقصي أسعد الله أسد الله، اللذان وقعا كشهود علي الزواج فيما بين نائب المرشد والفتاة السورية المقيمة بمنطقة الشيخ زايد بالقاهرة.
وتضمنت شروطاً للعقد فيما بين الطرفين، أبرزها إقرار طرفي التعاقد بأن ما تثمره الحياة الزوجية من نسل يتمتعون بكافة الحقوق القانونية والشرعية والمقررة للأبناء من نسب ونفقة وميراث والحقوق الأخرى، والتزام الطرف الأول بالالتزامات كافة التي يلتزم بها الأزواج شرعا وقانونا من نفقة ومأكل وملبس وسكن للزوجة وأولادها منه بما يتفق مع مكانة ومركز الطرف الأول الاجتماعية، وأن يسدد للزوجة مهرا قيمته مليون دولار أميركي، معجل منه 500 ألف دولار فقط، والذي قبضه الطرف الثاني، مع وجود 500 ألف دولار أخرى مؤجلة.

River to Sea Uprooted Palestinian
The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of this Blog!

No comments: